Before the discovery of the Yellowface blue mutation in the early 1930s, budgerigar breeders were under the impression that it was physically impossible to produce a budgerigar with both yellow and white coloring on the same bird. This belief persisted for many years. Around the same time, Mrs. G. Lait of Grimsby and Jack Long of Gorleston-on-sea both reported that they had bred blue budgerigars with a yellow mask. Both of these individuals lived in Gorleston-on-sea. Of course, the 1930s was the decade during which a large number of novel mutations emerged, were recorded, and were established. However, it was also reported that this mutation may have appeared a few years earlier in a tiny aviary on the Norfolk coast not too far away from Mr. Long’s house. This was contrary to the previous statement. This information was recorded by the late Cyril Rogers in his book titled “The World of Budgerigars,” which I consider to be one of the best historical reference books that I have. It was also reported that this Yellowface blue mutation first manifested itself in Australia around the same time that it happened in the UK. It’s possible that this variety was bred even more earlier than that, but it was never established since the breeders of the period didn’t recognize it, therefore it was never bred.
We are all aware that all budgerigar mutations came from the wild-type light green, and in the case of the blue budgerigar, its genetical breeding pattern is recessive in comparison to that of the light green. The term “wild-type allele” is frequently found in discussions about genetics. It was quickly determined in the early days that this mutation is of a dominant nature to the whitefaced blue budgerigar, and as a result, it cannot be carried in a hidden form. This realization came soon after the initial discovery of the mutation.
Early breeders recognized that the yellowface mutation existed in more than one variant form. We owe a huge debt of gratitude to the work that was done by enthusiasts and scholars such as Professor T.G. Taylor, who was assisted by Cyril Warner, Cyril Rogers, and John Papin of the United States. More recently, Ken Gray has conducted a large number of experiments with the many forms of yellowfaces, and he described the findings in his outstanding book titled “Rainbow Budgerigars and Constituent Varieties,” which was published in the year 1990.
The research of John Papin, which was published in 1964, and the hypothesis that the Yellowface mutation was caused by a dominant yellow restricting factor were both supported by Professor Taylor. According to this theory, the Yellowface mutation was caused by a dominant yellow restricting factor that had the effect of removing some of the yellow pigment from green series birds, which led to Yellowfaced blue series progeny being produced. This Yellowface restriction factor has a varied effect on the density of the yellow that is still there, and this could be the reason why we have so many different forms of Yellowface mutations. His research brought to light the additional possibility that the combination of the yellow restricting factors of both birds would increase to such an extent that whitefaced birds would appear. This possibility was brought to light by the fact that two yellowfaced birds could breed together to produce whitefaced birds. In the 1970s, Ken Gray conducted an experiment to verify this idea, and the results demonstrated without a reasonable doubt that the theory is accurate.
After the discovery of this novel mutation in the middle of the 1930s, breeders saw that distinct Yellowfaced blue colors were starting to show up in their flocks. The titles Yellowface mutant 1 and Yellowface mutant 2 as well as Goldenface blue series have been given to these three distinct types of budgerigars by the Budgerigar Society today. According to the publication titled “B.S. Colour Standards” published in 1994, each has its own color standard.
The gene that governs the development of this variety, like the genes that control the manufacture of all dominant kinds, can be carried in either a single or double dosage. As a result, instead of only having three types of yellowfaces, we now have a total of six different variants. If we consider the green budgerigar to be the most dominant variety and place it at the top of the dominance hierarchy, then the white-faced blue budgerigar would be the most recessive of all the different variations and would be found at the very bottom of the ladder. The Yellowfaced and Goldenfaced blue budgerigars are found at a higher position on that dominance ladder, with the mutant 2 being more dominant than the mutant 1. This means that if mutant 1 yellowfaces and mutant 2 yellowfaces are bred together, only yellowfaces with the mutant 2 gene will be produced, but all of the offspring will have the mutant 1 gene. This is a pairing that should be avoided because it will result in multiple offspring with the mutant 1 gene.
BS Colour Standards
According to the BS Colour Standards, the Yellowface mutant 1 can be any bird from the blue series with its mask having a lemon yellow coloration. This lemon yellow hue will be discernible in any of the white regions that the bird is trying to conceal, including the secondary tail feathers, the wings, and the rear of the head, among other places. This also applies to all other blue series budgerigars that have a white colouring, such as albinos, Whitewings, Spangles (both single and double factors), Dark-eyed clears, Whites, and other varieties of the breed. This is because the color green is more dominant than the color blue, and the color yellow is more dominant than the color white.
The mask of the Goldenface is a shade that is closer to a rich buttercup yellow than the lemon yellow of the mutant 1, while the mask of the mutant 2 is a shade that is slightly less vibrant than that of the Goldenface. In the Budgerigar Society’s Colour Standards released in 1994, a full description of each of the six mutations took up approximately half a page. This contrasts with the description that appeared in the previous set of published standards in 1984, which was limited to only two lines.
After discussing what will occur when two yellowfaces are put together, as well as the effects of the single factor and the double factor, we are now in a position to assert that there are six distinct variations of this mutation. The sole factor for the mutant 1 Yellowface blue series (Yellowface) The budgerigar is without a doubt the species that is bred the most often by fanciers, and it is most usually seen on the show bench. In this case, the lemon yellow color is only allowed on the mask; any leaking of the lemon yellow color from the mask into the body should be considered a display fault. The only exception to this rule is, of course, birds that are totally white. On the other side, the twofold component of this mutation is in reality a whiteface, which was explained earlier as the cause for this. The breeders who unexpectedly produce yellowfaces from two whitefaced birds do not have to worry that they have accidentally created a new mutation in their birds because one of the whitefaced birds is in fact a twofold factor. Mutant with a yellow face number 1.
The mutation caused by a single factor 1. When present in both its cobalt and violet forms, the Yellowface is the most beautiful bird. When compared to other birds, such as the skyblue or the gray, this one certainly stands out. And over the course of its history, the variety has worked its way up to a high status on the show bench, taking home big awards at the majority of the most prestigious events. At the B.S. club show in 1982, a Yellowface owned by Geoff Corser was awarded the title of best in show for any age, narrowly missing out on the ultimate honor.
Quite The Reverse
In the form of mutant 1 caused by a single factor, the yellow color is confined to the mask only; however, in mutant 2 and the Goldenface, the color appears everywhere except for the mask. When both of these mutations are present in a single factor, the yellow looks to spread throughout the blue body color after the first moult, giving it an effect similar to that of a sea green. The identification process is made even more challenging when the bird is gray and gives the impression of being grayish green. One may positively identify a Yellowface or Goldenface bird by ensuring that the undersides of its wings are yellow. This is the only way to do so.
The buttercup yellow coloration on the double factor form of the mutant 2 and the Goldenface is only present in the mask area of both of these mutants. These days, many different types of samples can be seen on the show bench, which is proving to be really informative for everyone involved.
Of course, Yellowface can also be present on a green bird (including all yellow variety birds), but I prefer to use the concept that the green (yellow) is hiding Yellowface. This is because Yellowface can also be present on a green bird.
The Keston Bird Farm in Kent created a hybrid bird that they dubbed the “rainbow” and marketed as a highly lovely bird for sale on commercial bases. The rainbow budgerigar is capable of passing on three different mutations to its offspring at the same time. These include the opaline, whitewing, and any form of the five visual yellowface or goldenface blue series birds. In the event that even a single variety is absent, the bird cannot be considered a true rainbow. A complete description of the rainbow is as follows: Yellowface (or Goldenface) Opaline Whitewing blue series. This is a bit of a mouthful.
Within the realm of budgerigars, the Australian Yellowface is a topic that is frequently discussed. This is a very new nomenclature that was introduced in 1984, when Jeff Attwood was the first person to bring one into this country. He thought the bird he had brought from his German friend Reinhard Molkentin was only a spangle grey green, but in reality it was a Spangle grey of the Australian single factor mutation. Rolf Christian was the first person to bring these birds all the way across from Australia to Europe. This Australian Yellowface shares the same physical characteristics and reproductive pattern as the Goldenface single factor in terms of both look and behavior.
There is a strong genetic link between the yellowface and goldenface variants and the whiteface blues. Because of this, when a Yellowface is paired with a Whiteface, the resulting offspring may or may not have yellow faces depending on the component the Yellowface is carrying.
For instance, if we pair a yellowface from a single factor mutant 1 with a whiteface, we should theoretically produce an equal number of yellowfaces and whitefaces. When two single factor mutant 1 yellowfaces are paired together, the offspring will have a 50 percent chance of having a single factor yellowface trait, a 25 percent chance of having a double factor yellowface trait, and a 25 percent chance of having a whiteface trait. As was mentioned earlier, the double factor mutant 1 has the physical characteristics of a whiteface as well. Because of this, we have fifty percent of the population consisting of whitefaces, of which fifty percent are yellowfaces. The only way to determine which of the two it is is through test mating. If this whitefaced, which has a double factor of yellowface, is paired with another whiteface that does not have any yellowface in its backdrop, the resulting yellowfaces will all have a single factor.
The expectations are the same as before with the exception that we do not receive whitefaces carrying the Goldenface in concealed form when it comes to the mutant 2 yellowfaces and Goldenfaces. Other than that, the expectations are the same.
There are different classes at every budgerigar exhibition for the many forms of the visual yellowfaces, however just because there is such a class does not mean that every type of the visual yellowface must be exhibited there. The Budgerigar Society has established a hierarchy of importance for the classification of composite birds that must be adhered to in order to participate in displays. In this particular sequence of precedence, the crest comes first, then the spangle, then the dominant pied, then the recessive pied, then the Yellowface, and finally all of the rarer and any other color birds. Because of this, the exhibitor should, in theory, have no trouble determining in which class he should submit his Yellowface bird. If it is a crested Yellowface, then the bird ought to be entered in the Crested class. If it is a Spangle, then it ought to be recorded in the Spangle class, and if it is a Pied, then it ought to be entered in the Pied class.
Because there are different classifications for albinos, whitewings, and yellowfaces, it can be difficult for a beginner to determine which category a yellowface albino or a yellowface whitewing blue should be entered into. These birds are required to be put into the Yellowface courses in addition to the rainbows as a result of the order of precedence. This is due to the fact that the albino and whitewing blue classifications are intended to be for the most unadulterated versions of their respective colors. The same reasoning can be applied to the Yellowface Clearbody, Yellowface Greywings, or Yellowface white. Because of the order of precedence, these composite birds can only be submitted into the Yellowface classes and not any of the other color classes or the uncommon class.
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