Mutations In Budgerigars

Since budgerigars were domesticated all throughout the globe, their colors have evolved into a wide range of tints and types. The original wild budgerigar, classified as a Light Green, evolved into Blues and other variations of this color. Greens were the most common color group when they initially became popular as pets in the 1920s. Many cross-mutations were grown during the 1930s, when professional European fanciers created the exhibition budgerigar. Although we are familiar with the two primary groups, Greens and Blues, additional groups in different colors have been produced, both in the green and blue series.


Pieds come in two varieties. The Australian Dominant Pied is the first. This variety’s design contains two colors, one in the body and one in the wing, both in proportion to each other. The Dominant Pied can only be bred by mating with one other Dominant Pied. This variety’s offspring can only be Dominant Pied or Normal budgerigars. Statistics reveal that in certain groups of newborns, Pieds will predominate, while in others, there will be no indication of Pieds at all.

Unfortunately, when breeding Australian Dominant Pieds, 75% of the newborns do not match the display criteria for this type. Their color pattern may be rather stunning, particularly in the dark factor group. Because of its dominance, this type has allowed the fancier to grow in size with the display birds. One of the issues with the current Australian Dominant Pied is that the body color has become highly uneven. This must be addressed urgently in the near future to prevent the bird from returning to normal.

Composite Australian Pieds, such as Yellow-faced Opaline spangles, have caused confusion on the show bench due to the bird’s many colors and varieties.

The Danish and Dutch Recessive Pied, formerly known as the Harlequin in the United States and Europe, is the second Pied in the variety. This type comprises 75% of one color, such as yellow or white, throughout the bird, 20% green or blue, and 5% black patterns on the wing and head, thus the name Harlequin. Because this variety is recessive, bred birds may be divided. Because it is recessive, this bird may seem normal. A clean patch at the back of the skull, generally a quarter-inch radius, serves as the identifying characteristic. When coupled with a visible Recessive Pied, this bird will produce Pieds in both male and female.

One downside of this kind is that there hasn’t been much advancement in terms of size and form of the exhibition budgerigar. Over the past 10 years, birds of greater grade have been brought from Europe. Although modern birds display size and form, the majority of the original patterns have been twisted.

When we combine a Clearflight/Recessive Pied with a Recessive Pied, we get a Dark-Eyed Clear. This is a single-colored bird with a black eye. The Recessive Pied, like the Australian Dominant Pied, lacks an iris ring in the eye. When a Recessive Pied is coupled with a Dominant Pied, an odd-eyed Pied is sometimes created. This bird has one clear eye and one with an iris ring.


This bird is considered to be one of the most attractive of the budgerigar species. When bred in the dark factor group, the contrast between the bright wings and the dark body color is particularly noticeable. Because Clearwings are recessive, most birds will have either dark or light offspring. One of the issues with this variety is that suffused or diluted chicks will be generated unless the fancier understands the background of his or her birds. There are light, medium, and dark colors in all budgerigar varieties. When two birds from the light group are mated together, extremely light-colored birds are created. When two dark-colored birds are paired together, the result is a double factor Clearwing. The most serious issue with this dark group is in the wings, particularly during flight, when they reveal the undesirable grey color, both in Greens and Blues. The cheek patch and tail color, which reveal the degree or depth of color, make it easier to distinguish between light, medium, and dark.

The Clearwing has grown in popularity, particularly in the United Kingdom, and is now making its way onto the show bench in the United States. Other mutations, like as Yellows and Grey Whites, have been introduced into the Clearwing by most fanciers. Unfortunately, this has degraded the body color while keeping the wings bright. Normal budgerigars have been introduced by certain fanciers. This has had the opposite effect, causing the wings to darken alongside the body. Top Clearwing breeders often pick the finest of the variety with a focus on contrast, while still producing a nice show budgerigar.

Although the Australian Clearwings have outstanding transparent wings, their size leaves much to be desired. To address this issue, excellent display Clearwings have been imported into Australia in recent years.


The first mention of this extraordinary mutation emerged in New Zealand, followed by Australia. According to John Scoble, a leading Australian specialist, this variation may be connected to the Recessive Pied.

It’s fascinating that in the United States, a variation called as the Clearbody resembles the Spangle, particularly when young. Close inspection reveals a reversal of color pattern, for example, white with black edging or yellow with black edging, depending on the green or blue series. The Spangle gets its name from the shell feathers or semi-circular feathers that run from the secondary region to the wing butt. Close inspection of these feathers reveals that they are not bordered with black, as some people assumed, but the black stays as it would in a normal bird. Because this feather lacks a grey region, the Spangle seems to have a black border on each feather. Since the early 1970s, when the spangle first arrived in the UK, thousands of Spangles have been produced and shown from the 6 -8 specimens that arrived.

The great thing about this type is that its fertility is superior to all other budgerigar variations. One essential thing to notice is that, in addition to its remarkable fertility, the variety has had the greatest success in developing the exhibition quality in size and form above all other budgerigar types.

Fanciers, like the Pieds, have created multi-variety birds, such as Yellow-faced Spangles and Dominant Cinnamon Pieds. The Yellow-faced Violet Spangle is one of the most eye-catching budgerigars. We don’t sure why the Spangle has boosted the depth of color in the birds, but it has definitely improved the dark factor birds.

Other Mutations

In this category, they are the Lacewings, a one-color yellow or blue bird with Cinnamon border on the wings. Both the German Fallow and the English Fallow have pink eyes and a regular Cinnamon wing pattern. Rainbows are multicolored birds, as the name indicates. A Yellow-faced Opaline Whitewing Blue is the definition. Albinos and Lutinos are mutations as well. They are one-color Ino birds with pink eyes and no melanin in their composition. A Pied, Opaline, Normal, or Cinnamon Lutino or Albino. It is critical to understand this while pairing the birds. For example, if we mate two Cinnamon Albinos together, a large region of brown will form on the wings. We couple Opaline Lutino to Opaline Lutino to get the greatest depth of color in Lutinos since the ground color in Opalines is the same throughout. Unfortunately, if we utilize green birds to produce split Lutinos, a green sheen will form on the body.
There are several specialty variety groups that cover all of the mutations mentioned. Anyone thinking in breeding mutations can contact The Budgerigar Society for further information.

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